Sunday, July 5, 2015

"From 0 TO 80 In a Few Weeks: Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming" by Steve Kohlhagen



If you go out and hop into your friendly neighborhood time machine in order to check out Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming in April of 1867, you will find............Well, you will find nothing.

Prairie dogs? Sure. Buffalo? Sure. Plains Indians? Sure. Plains? Sure. But settlers? None. Zero. Zilch. A few brave souls or miners riding by now and then, for sure. But no sign of anything approaching a town or a settlement. Maybe a cattle rancher dropping by for a speculative visit in case the rumors of the coming railroad were true.

And the rumors were true.

On July 5, 1867 a surveying party set up camp and established a land office at what would later become Cheyenne. They platted a town to serve the coming Union Pacific Railroad stop. And presto! Out of prairie dog villages, a boom town!

The first house was built. Then the first two story house was built, both that very month. When the railroad actually arrived four months later, on November 13, there were already 4,000 residents and a nearly two month old newspaper, The Cheyenne Leader. By all accounts, these 4,000 or so fortune seekers, saloon owners, "girls" and their employers, and gamblers were all "the scum of society."

Nevertheless, the citizens held a meeting on September 27 and decided to elect an (uninvited) delegate to Congress, which they did on October 8 (more than a month before the railroad would actually arrive). The settlers were excited about the coming cattle boom, but in no way were they ready to let any grass grow under their feet! When the first winter arrived 6,000 people had set up shop in "The Sodom of the West."

By January 1868, it was time to deal with the worst of the scum, and the town's vigilantes came into full swing, warning citizens explicitly to "Beware of the Vigilance Committee." At the end of 1868, by which time the railroad had reached westward to what would be Laramie, the town had three newspapers and three banks. Population estimates exceeding 50,000 were being thrown around. This was clearly too high, but the picture is clear. A more reliable estimate held that by 1871 an estimated 60,000 cattle were grazing within 100 miles of the town, where, a mere four years earlier, only antelope, buffalo, and prairie dogs had more or less quietly roamed the plains (see
http://www.wyomingtalesandtrails.com/chey69.html for some fascinating pictures of this thriving town in 1868 and 1869.)

The same amazing story then moved 50 miles west. On to what was to become Laramie.

The land agent for the Union Pacific Railroad arrived at that spot in April, 1868 to find a tent city of 200 people anticipating his arrival. These hardy souls were already camped out in wagons, tents, sod-roofed dugouts, and railroad-tie cabins.

In the first week, four hundred town lots were sold. In the first two weeks, 500 "businesses" arrived.

On May 9, the final track was laid and on May 10, the first train arrived to find a thriving shack and tent city of 2,000 people, the vast majority of whom were described as "rakes," three card monte dealers, poker players, gamblers, their "shrill voiced painted consorts," and other "dregs." Various descriptions suggest that there were no churches, but there were already 23 saloons, and, in addition, several "hog ranches" and "parlor houses." The ratio of men to women was reportedly 6:1. I have no way of knowing for sure, but I'm guessing that there were very few housewives and schoolmarms among those 300 females.

By October, the population had soared to 5,000 in five months (amusingly, the 2010 census shows fewer than 31,000), and the good citizens, like their neighboring community of Cheyenne, 10 months older and 50 miles to the east, had had enough of their roaring carnival. On October 28, 1868 the "Vigilance Committee" arrested the three half brothers who had been terrifying what passed for the law abiding citizens. The three were arrested in their Bucket of Blood Saloon, and the citizens of the thriving five month old town awoke the next morning to the sight of them, and several of their comrades, hanging from various buildings on the public streets.

In a few short months, Laramie and Cheyenne had arrived as full-blown Western towns.

And---you guessed it (drum rolls to a shameful self-promotion)---both towns star in Chief of Thieves:

Where They Bury You, Chief of Thieves, Sunstone Press, is now available at Barnes & Noble and Amazon.











Saturday, July 4, 2015

HAPPY INDEPENDENCE DAY!

Happy 4th of July! If this rendition of the STAR SPANGLED BANNER doesn't give you chills I don't know what will!



Friday, July 3, 2015

HELLO FROM SARA BARNARD

As many of you know, I have to be seen at MD Anderson in Houston every three months as the result of a cancer diagnosis that shook my world just under a year ago -- it shook my world alright, and saved my life. Sound strange? It does to me, too, which is why I had to write about it, just to make it make sense. That book is almost done :-)

Well, check out some of our adventures while there . . .
We braved the beaches at the end of a jetty in Galveston . . .  this picture was taken just before my daughter's foot was stung by a jellyfish (we still don't know what kind) and we had our first encounter with a fin in the water . . .


This baby Bonnethead shark flopped up on the beach right behind the kids and me, at my husband and son's feet. I immediately snatched him up for a photo op. He was so sweet and precious!! I wondered how anyone could ever be scared of them. Then again, he was just a baby. I put him back in the water, he swam back to my feet . . . several times. The surf was so rough. Finally, I think he made it back out to the sea. I watched and watched for that sweet little fin.


Before my appointment, we made our pilgrimage to the Rain Forest Cafe. Not for the food, but for the river ride in the back! We had just come out of the ocean and were soaking wet and shivering in this picture!

After my appointment, and a good report (of only some changes, but none cancerous . . . back in three months) we lit out for Dallas where these beautiful kids were waiting for us! We named them Banana and Carrot. 


Until the next two baby goatlets (yes, I call them baby goatlets . . . I just can't call them kids. It feels wrong), arrive in August, I have this gorgeous book cover, compliments of Livia Reasoner, and upcoming release to keep me occupied!



Thanks for stopping by for a visit today!

Monday, June 29, 2015

A Little Help From My Friends

Well!  I will admit this has turned out to be a whole lot harder than I ever imagined.

When I committed to this first Monday of the month blog, I decided to use it to my advantage.  I needed to succeed at marketing my writing, selling my books, and building my brand.  What better forcing mechanism?

Past training dictated (no choice) that I immediately organize the blog into planning, action, and results. After a month, I remembered I am a writer and a little imagination brought plowing, sowing, and reaping.

To quote the Beatles, “With A Little Help From My Friends,” there seemed to be quite a bit to cover.  There continued to be the day-to-day writing and the not quite so day-to-day commitment to my own plowing, sewing, and reaping.  Six months into this it looked like my idea and energy had about run their course.  I considered aborting, leaving today’s first Monday a blank.  The result augured little more than the hole you leave when you take your hand out of a bucket of water.

Friends saved me again.

John Nesbitt and I had a long discussion about multiple marketing ideas, conferences, book store tours, and the problems of geography.  On the latter, I observe John has a towering reputation, a formidable body of work, and residence in Torrington, WY.  His natural market is .0019 (0.19%) of the population of book buyers.  Within about eight hundred miles he can expand it to 3.31% (.0331) of the population.  My version of that problem is that I have no reputation and I am about two thousand miles away from my (current) natural market.  When I travel to it, it is the same size as John’s.  We both have to find a way to reach larger markets.  As one means to overcome geography, we discussed using short stories as a marketing tool.

With the remarkable aura of modesty that accompanies him to every room he inhabits, John immediately points out that these ideas are not original with him.  He learned them from someone before he discussed them with me.  And I write them here, not new with me,  in the vein of standing on the shoulders of …….

Although I culled five stories from the chapters of my manuscript and worked through the year plus of submission and rejection agony to see them published before Every Soul Is Free was published, I never considered short stories as a marketing tool.  That long sentence almost adds up to an oxymoron.  I have viewed the world as composed of short story writers and novel writers, placing myself in the latter category.  (I even retained that view of the world after multiple readings of Stephen King’s On Writing.)  If a short story comes out of a novel I am writing, fine.  If I am diverting myself to write a short story.  No thanks.  I do not have the time.  As with so many of my fiercely held viewpoints, a little more nuance may be useful.
 
The usefulness, of course, remains at its highest when the short story can be lifted out of the novel.  It creates a pathway for the work as well as the author.  The pathway for the author, however, is the reason for viewing the short story as a marketing tool.  With rare exceptions the print magazine market is dead, so we focused our discussion on the online magazine market and the e-book market.  I have the experience mentioned above in the online magazine market but the insight to produce your own publishable e-book stories was the epiphany.  The notion is breadth – a short story for 49 cents or 99 cents and ultimately a collection for $2.99 and maybe someone asks you to be in an anthology.  Under any circumstances, your name is out there on a lot of titles.  I had never thought of before, and have yet to do it, but it is an antidote to the bottom of the well I was talking about at the beginning of this blog.  There is a lot to work on here.
 
While we are on the subject of e-books, the irrepressible L.J. Martin told me that his venture Wolfpack Publishing sold its millionth book a couple of Fridays ago.  I love the way that word feels in the mouth, millionth.  What interests me about what L.J. and his partner are doing is the potential power boost it can give to a back list.  I do not yet have one with two books published, but I have a friend who has five self-published (not Westerns) books.  I asked L.J. if it would be a benefit to refer him.  Visualize high-wattage smile and gale force enthusiasm, “Yes.”  So, I have put them in touch.  I’ll keep you posted.


If you remember a couple of blogs ago, Dusty Richards told us about an effort where his e-book publisher gave away 10,000 of his books and the result was to generate a sizable 1099.  We had a chance to talk about it.  I asked him how that worked.  Did he think the 10,000 who got a free book told people and those people bought one?  He allowed as how he did not know, all he knew was that it worked.  From other friends I hear that the free book strategy has not worked so well.  So, the free book strategy is still unclear to me.  Perhaps you have had some experience, good or bad, that you will share with us in the comments?


Another friend, Vonn McKee, told me about her ideas and plans, but I am sworn to secrecy. Sooo, this is but a teaser to pique your interest.

Circling back to the beginning, I find it a joy not to leave this first Monday blank and, once again, all because of a “Little Help From My Friends.”

E-mail Edward Massey with comments, author of 2014 Gold Quill winner, Every Soul Is Free and Amazon ABNA 2009 Quarter-finalist, Telluride Promise.

Friday, June 26, 2015

PRAIRIE ROSE 4th OF JULY ANTHOLOGY



HANG ONTO YOUR HATS, Ladies and Gents! A western romance anthology is coming out soon, all about cowboys, picnics, the Fourth of July, and delicious recipes. What could be more fun in the hot summertime? Here's a preview of some of the stories that Prairie Rose Publications calls "a good, old-fashioned, rip-roaring COWBOY CELEBRATION!"


Lorrie Farrelly—The Longest Way Home
Maddie, an orphan, is torn when her father shows up to reclaim her from her adoptive mother.




Linda Carroll-Bradd—Forged by Fire
Can a wounded soul find solace in the attentions from a cook who nurtures through her culinary creations?




Agnes Alexander—Second Chance at Love
A temporary living arrangement might lead to something else when love enters the mix.




Beverly Wells—Brighter Tomorrows
Callie trusts no man. Chase Matlock is fearful to love again. He gets his
man, she gets her adventure, and together they find it all.




Angela Raines—Never Had a Chance
How can a deadly trick bring two people the love they didn't know they needed?


Julia Daniels—For the Love of Grace
Poppy travels west to find her sister—but her own happily-ever-after awaits, as well.

Meg Mims—Winner Takes All
Cora Peterson's plan to beat her rival at a picnic auction brings about a surprising end and an unexpected love...

Make sure you check out the anthology - a mix of sweet and sensual stories set in the West, with wonderful heroines and their heroes, and fabulous recipes to try and share this summer. YUM!

CLICK HERE to pre-order A Cowboy Celebration -- happy summer reading!



Mystery author Meg Mims earned a Spur Award from WWA and also a Laramie award for her western historical mystery series, Double Crossing and Double or Nothing. Meg -- also one-half of the writing team of D.E. Ireland for St. Martin's Minotaur mystery series featuring Eliza Doolittle & Henry Higgins -- lives in Southeastern Michigan with her husband and a sweet Malti-poo. She loves writing novels, novellas and short stories, both contemporary and historical. 


Thursday, June 25, 2015

FEVERS AND PEST HOUSES



THE DOCTOR'S BAG 

- the blog about 19th century medicine and surgery


Keith Souter aka Clay More




Fevers of all sorts were a constant anxiety to both doctors and the public in the 19th century, just as they had been in every society for millennia. Many of them could rip through a community, causing disability, suffering and death. They were poorly understood, yet somehow doctors had to do the best they could.

Hippocrates and fevers
The great Hippocrates of Kos, (460-370 BC), whom we met in the chapter on The Hippocratic Oath, left a vast amount of medical writings. Philologists have spent whole careers trying to workout which of the books that make up the Hippocratic Corpus were actually written by him. Of the seventy books that make up this collection it is currently thought that he wrote nineteen  or twenty, the rest being based upon his teachings. two of them are relevant to us in this section. They are entitled: Airs, Waters, Places and Epidemics.

In Airs, Waters, Places he tells budding physicians that they should make a study of the air and the climate, the water supply and the surrounding countryside, including plants, animals and people, in order to understand how the environment can cause illness.



Anatomical theatre of the Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy - the statue of Hippocrates


In Epidemics, he gives us a remarkable series of cases in which he describes actual people suffering from the various feverish illnesses, complete with clinical descriptions and the path to recovery or death. He describes the physical changes that occur, the alteration in the appearance of the urine, bowel movements and the fluctuations in the fevers.



In this section from Epidemics, translated by Francis Adams in 1865?  gives you the impression that you are listening to this ancient doctor recounting his rounds of his patients, staying in the different parts of  a Greek city, complete with numerous temples to the gods:


In these diseases death generally happened on the sixth day, as
with Epaminondas, Silenus, and Philiscus the son of Antagoras. Those
who had parotid swellings experienced a crisis on the twentieth day,
but in all these cases the disease went off without coming to a suppuration,
and was turned upon the bladder. 

But in Cratistonax, who lived by the temple of Hercules, and in the maid servant of 
Scymnus the fuller, it turned to a suppuration, and they died. Those who had a crisis
on the seventh day, had an intermission of nine days, and a relapse
which came to a crisis on the fourth day from the return of the fever,
as was the case with Pantacles, who resided close by the temple of
Bacchus. 

Those who had a crisis on the seventh day, after an interval
of six days had a relapse, from which they had a crisis on the seventh
day, as happened to Phanocritus, who was lodged with Gnathon the fuller.
During the winter, about the winter solstices, and until the equinox,
the ardent fevers and frenzies prevailed, and many died. The crisis,
however, changed, and happened to the greater number on the fifth
day from the commencement, left them for four days and relapsed; and
after the return, there was a crisis on the fifth day, making in all
fourteen days. 

The crisis took place thus in the case of most children,
also in elder persons. Some had a crisis on the eleventh day, a relapse
on the fourteenth, a complete crisis on the twentieth; but certain
persons, who had a rigor about the twentieth, had a crisis on the
fortieth. The greater part had a rigor along with the original crisis,
and these had also a rigor about the crisis in the relapse. There
were fewest cases of rigor in the spring, more in summer, still more
in autumn, but by far the most in winter; then hemorrhages ceased.

Hippocrates divided fevers according to times when they peaked. Thus: quotidian (daily), tertian (peak every 3 days), quartan (peak every 4th day). 

Splenic enlargement as it occurs in malaria

He also noted that those who lived in or near swamps or marshes and who drank stagnant water had large stiff spleens, a characteristic of the disease that he called swamp fever. This undoubtedly was malaria. Although he did not appreciate that it was  spread by mosquitoes, it was a startlingly accurate description of the disease. We shall return to the spleen later in another post when we look at some of the fevers.

Fevers and Pest houses

As we saw in the blog post about The Fight against Infections, people realised that many diseases spread case by case. The manner in which they spread was not understood, but three things were thought to cause illnesses: drinking tainted water, breathing bad air or touching affected individuals. The concept of contagion developed, meaning spreading by touching.

Those illnesses that spread rapidly as epidemics were thought best to be contained. Thus leprosy was dealt with by making affected people live in leper colonies, kept away from non-infected people. Many societies used special pest houses to 'look after' people with all those diseases that produced fevers that they thought could be risky to the community.

The origin of the term is from pestilence, for these were pestilence houses. In the Old West many towns had pest houses. What a lot of people don't realise, however, is that they had their origin back in the Old Country. And so, let me take you back a few centuries.

Epidemics and pandemics
These are terms used to describe the rapid spread of an infectious illness. An epidemic is when a locality is affected, whereas a pandemic is when an epidemic spreads across countries and across continents. 

Throughout history there have been some notable epidemics and pandemics:

The plague of Athens of 430 BC killed about a quarter of the population of the Greek city of Athens. The actual disease has been the subject of much debate among scholars for decades. It is not thought to have been plague, but may have been measles, typhoid fever, thus or one of the viral hemorrhagic fevers. We will never know for sure.

The plague of Justinian from 541-542 AD was the first recorded instance of bubonic plague. It affected the eastern Roman Empire and killed between 25 and 50 million people. It is said that it killed 5,000 people per day in Constantinople. 

The Black Death of 1347-1353 was a pandemic that raged across Europe, killing between 75-200 million people. It began in Asia and was carried along the Silk Road to Constantinople where it spread along the merchant routes across Europe. In England it reduced the population by 50 per cent.



Bubonic plague victims, 1411


Epidemics recurred across Europe on a virtual five year cycle for the  next few centuries. 


The three types of plague

Bubonic plague - characterised by large swellings called buboes. These are lymph nodes that swell to a huge size in the axillae (armpits), neck and groins, and become matted. The victims also experience fever, headaches, nausea and vomiting. The mortality rate was about 30 per cent. This was the dominant type of illness during the Great Plague. It was spread from the bite of an infected black rat flea, now identified as the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

Pneumonic plague - this is when the lungs are involved to produce a severe pneumonia. The death rate for this was even higher. 

Septicaemic plague - this occurred when the infection reaches the blood stream. The mortality rate in those days would be almost 100 per cent.

The treatments would have been well virtually ineffective. People, including children were encouraged to smoke. Buboes were bathed and had leeches attached to them to such out blood and lymph.  Bleeding was also done, using any number of recommended bleeding points. According to the medical texts of the time, bleeding at different points could have different effects.





Points for blood-letting, Field book of wound medicine, 1517

According to the Doctrine of Humours, which we looked at in the post on Joseph Lister and Aseptic Surgery people of a hot temperament were thought to be most likely to contract plague, because they had larger skin pores.  They having greater heat could easily be treated by bleeding, because blood was considered to be wet and hot. Thus bleeding was thought to reduce the bad humour causing the disease.  


Treating the sick was an unenviable task, considering the high mortality rate. Doctors wore long leather gowns and gloves and wore make with long beaks, which contained a sponge soaked in vinegar.




London and the Great Plague
The Great Plague was the worst outbreak of actual plague since the Black Death. The earliest cases occurred in the spring of 1665 in the parish of St Giles-in-the-Fields, the spread rapidly through the city of London during an especially hot summer. Those who could afford to fled the city. This included King Charles II, parliament and the law courts, which moved to Oxford.

The Lord Mayor, Sir William Lawrence and his aldermen(town councillors) were left to enforce the orders of the king, to try to limit the spread of the disease. He issued the so-called lord Mayor's orders on 1st July 1665. These stated that examiners, watchmen and searchers had to be established for each parish. The examiners (who had no choice in being appointed, upon penalty of imprisonment, had to serve for a two month period) had to enquire and determine which houses had anyone who was sick in them. They informed the constable who would arrange to have the house boarded up to contain the residents.

Every infected household then had to have two watchmen  one for the day and one for the night, whose duty was to ensure that no-one entered or left the house. 

The searchers were women of the parish who had to search the bodies of anyone who died to determine what disease they died of, specifically the plague. 




In an attempt to reduce the carriage of disease, men were appointed to kill cats, dogs, pigeons and rats, although the relationship of rats and rat fleas to the plague were unknown. 

Public gatherings and funerals were not permitted. People dying from plague had to be buried in plague pits rather than in church graveyards between sundown and  sunrise. Relatives were not allowed to hold a service at the grave.

In 1666 an important statute was passed entitled Orders for the prevention of Plague. This set down the law certain things that had to be done in every town and city in the land. It stated that every town had to provide a pest house (a pestilence house), consisting of a building, huts or sheds in readiness for any break out of infection. Thus was the pest house established in law. That law extended to the colonies and as such, over the centuries, the pest house became part of the culture. Originally intended as a place to care for and exclude plague victims, it became the infectious disease 'hospital' for communities.

The plague in literature
Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) was a Member of Parliament who famously kept a diary from 1660 -1690, which gives us a great insight into life during the Restoration period (the reign of King Charles II, or the restoration of the monarchy after the English Civil War of 1642-1651, when King Charles I was executed for tyranny). 




Samuel Pepys the great diarist


From his diary entry for Wednesday, 16th August 1665:

 "But, Lord! how sad a sight it is to see the streets empty of people, and very few upon the 'Change. Jealous of every door that one sees shut up, lest it should be the plague; and about us two shops in three, if not more, generally shut up."

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731), was a journalist, novelist and pamphleteer and spy, who penned such famous novels as  Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders. In 1772 he wrote a novel entitled Journal of the Plague Year. 


 Daniel Defoe, author of Journal of the Plague Year, published 1722

In the novel he tells of how between 18 and 20 watchmen were killed as people attempted to escape from plague houses. 

Not far from the same place they blew up a watchman with gunpowder, and burned the poor fellow dreadfully; and while he made hideous cries, and nobody would venture to come near to help him, the whole family that were able to stir got out at the windows one storey high, two that were left sick calling out for help. Care was taken to give them nurses to look after them, but the persons fled were never found, till after the plague was abated they returned; but as nothing could be proved, so nothing could be done to them.


Site of a City Pesthouse of London, used in the Great Plague

The thermometer - a vital clinical instrument
The Doctrine of Humours was, as I have mentioned before, the dominant theory in medicine for millennia. Doctors were aware that when people had fevers they felt hot to the touch, yet assessing this heat was totally subjective. A physician could postulate about a patient having a hot temperament and a hot illness, yet there was no way of demonstrating this.

In 1625 Santorio Santorio, a friend of Galileo invented a thermometer, capable of assessing body temperature. With it he was able to show that people with so-called hot temperaments did not have raised temperatures. In a sense it was evidence against the Doctrine of Humours, but it no effect on medical practice because practitioners clung to the teachings of antiquity.

In physics various thermometers were developed by scientists who needed to measure the amount of heat that things could attain. Fahrenheit developed his temperature scale in 1704 and Celsius produced his in 1742. Doctors did not adopt them, for they found no need to put a figure on the temperature of the body. They continued to feel with their hand and pontificate from ancient dogma.

It was not really until Professor Carl Wunderlich (1815-1877), a German physician started researching patient temperatures with a clinical thermometer that doctors started to understand the importance of temperature. 




Dr Carl Wanderlich introduced the thermometer into clinical practice

He established that there was a normal body temperature, of 37 degrees Celsius or 98.4 degrees Fahrenheit. He established that the pattern of a fever was important diagnostically and prognostically (prognosis is the technique of making a prediction of the outcome of a disease). He actually thought that every infectious illness had its own characteristic fever pattern, which could differentiate one disease from another. This is not actually the case, but his use of temperature charts was accepted and became an established part of medical practice.




The different types of fever
As I mentioned earlier, Hippocrates had successfully described several types of fever. With the use of a fever chart, where the temperature is measured daily or every few hours a pattern can be observed.  The different types of malaria fevers that he described could be observed. We now know that they occur because there are different types of Plasmodium which cause malaria and they have slightly different time periods for their life cycles and thence  different effects upon the patient's temperature. 





Different temperature patterns


The word fever comes from the Latin fervere, meaning ‘to be hot, to boil. In many western novels and movies you see patients lying delirious, perhaps being treated with hot stones  and wrapped upon swathes of blankets in order to stir up the fever and produce a crisis, that is a peak in temperature after which recovery was thought to take place.  This is  to actually not a desirable thing to do, as it is possible to cause cerebral or brain irritation, which could cause a convulsion. 

Early doctors had observed these convulsions, yet were not aware of their significance. Later, more enlightened doctors taught that one should do whatever one could to bring the temperature down, using cooling flannels and baths, and also medicines that had the ability to reduce the temperature. Such remedies were called febrifuges, from the Latin febris, meaning ‘burning’, and fugere, meaning ‘to flee or drive away’. Willow was considered a powerful febrifuge.

Later, once doctors had a better understanding of the causes and the effects of a fever in illness, and of the importance of body temperature, the word pyrexia was used in medicine instead of fever, and the drugs that could lower the pyrexia (from the Greek pyrexis, meaning ‘feverishness’) were termed antipyretics.

Malaria and the clue to pain relief
In the mid-seventeenth century, powdered Peruvian Bark – known as chinchona – was extolled for its properties in the treatment of malaria and other fevers. The problem was that Peruvian Bark was expensive.

A chance discovery by the Reverend Edward Stone (1702–68) an English clergyman in 1763, that powdered willow bark tasted like quinine, led him to use it as a substitute for chinchona bark.
To his delight and amazement, it seemed to have a range of activity beyond that of chinchona’s ability to reduce fevers. Most significantly, it also had pain-relieving qualities. Crucially for the scientific community, he wrote about his discovery in a letter to the Royal Society, who published it in their Philosophical transactions in 1763.

I treated five and forty of my parishioners who were suffering from various agues [fevers] with increasing doses of powdered willow bark … and almost all of them rapidly improved.

Significantly, Reverend Stone referred to the Doctrine of Signatures as being the reason that he was drawn to test willow bark. Although he does not say so, it is likely that he had been aware that willow preparations had been used in local folk medicine.

Aspirin the wonder drug
Throughout the mid-eighteenth century, doctors prescribed salicin and salicylic acid with good results for many painful conditions, including arthritis, gout, rheumatic fever and typhoid fever. Unfortunately, they also found that many people suffered from significant bleeding problems, gastric irritation and stomach ulceration. There was a need to find a less troublesome treatment.

The major breakthrough came in 1897, the German chemist Felix Hoffman was working for the German pharmaceutical company Bayer. He was looking for a way to produce a form of salicylic acid that would not produce stomach irritation. There was a personal motivation behind this: his father had found salicylic acid effective, but also found the gastric side effects too hard to cope with.


Felix Hoffman (1868-1946)

Using the herb meadowsweet as the source for salicylic acid, Hoffman gave his father various modified forms of salicylic acid and eventually managed to produce acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) by using a different chemical process. The result was a form of acetylsalicylic acid that his father found worked extremely well.
           

In 1899, Bayer patented the method of preparation of aspirin and obtained the trademark for it as Aspirin. It is thought that the choice of name derived from ‘A’ for ‘acetyl’; ‘spir’ for Spiraea ulmaria (meadowsweet) and ‘in’ … which was simply a common ending for a drug.

In the 21st century we have learned much about this amazing drug - which certainly cannot be used by everyone, because it can have dangerous side effects for some people. Apart from being an antipyretic and analgesic drug, it is anti-inflamatory and seems to have protective effects against heart disease, stroke, many cancers and possibly even doe types of dementia.  It is outside the scope of this book to say further, but fuller information about research is contained in the author's book An Aspirin a day. 

***
Some of Clay More's latest releases:

Redemption Trail published by Western Trail Blazer
- a novelette- novella



Sam Gibson used to be a lawman, until the day he made a terrible mistake that could never be taken back. Since then, he has alternated between wishing there were a way he could redeem himself and believing he deserved punishment. 

He’s about to get both… 

REDEMPTION TRAIL

And his collection of short stories about Doc Marcus Quigley is published by High Noon Press



Available at Amazon.com:


And his latest western  novel Dry Gulch Revenge was published by Hale on 29th August.




And as his alter ego.....