By Kathleen Rice Adams
The Wild West could be a dangerous place. If outlaws, gunfights, animal encounters, and Indian attacks didn’t do a body in, disease or accident very well might. For an unlucky few, danger emerged from an unexpected source: women with an axe to grind.
|Belle Gunness and her children|
Lizzie Borden may have been the most infamous of America’s female killers, but she certainly wasn’t the only woman to dispose of inconvenient family, friends, or passersby. She certainly wasn’t the most prolific American murderess. That honor goes to Belle Gunness
, a Norwegian immigrant suspected of killing more than forty people—including two husbands and several suitors—in Illinois and Indiana at the turn of the 20th Century. When authorities began investigating disappearances, Gunness herself disappeared…after setting up a hired hand to take the fall for arson that burned her farmhouse to the ground with her three young children and the headless body of an unidentifiable woman inside.
The shocking crime of serial murder seems even more chilling when the perpetrator is a woman. Cultural and biological factors encourage women to eschew physical aggression. Most women fight with words or, sometimes, by manipulating male proxies. Consequently, females seldom go on the kind of violent binges that characterize male serial killers. In fact, only about 15 percent of serial murderers in history have been women.
According to Canadian author, filmmaker, and investigative historian Peter Vronsky, who holds a PhD in criminal justice, when men kill, they employ force and weapons. Restraint of the victim often provides part of the thrill: Many male serial killers derive sexual gratification from the act of taking a life. Women, on the other hand, prefer victims who are helpless or unsuspecting: Forty-five percent of convicted female serial killers used poison to dispose of spouses, children, the elderly, or the infirm. Instead of a sexual high, their primary motivation was money or revenge.
The eight female serial killers below were active during the nineteenth and very early twentieth centuries in the American West. (Another half-dozen cropped up east of the Mississippi during the same period.)
The volatile wife of a wealthy physician, Delphine LaLaurie tortured and killed slaves who displeased her. An 1834 fire at her New Orleans mansion revealed her depravity when a dozen maimed and starving men and women, along with a number of eviscerated corpses, were discovered in cages or chained to the walls in the attic. One woman had been skinned alive; another woman’s lips were sewn shut, and a man’s sexual organs had been removed. LaLaurie fled to avoid prosecution and reportedly died in Paris in December 1842. Years later, during renovations to the estate, contractors discovered even more slaves had been buried alive in the yard.
Mary Jane Jackson
A New Orleans prostitute with a violent temper, Mary Jane Jackson was a relative anomaly among female serial killers. Described as a “husky,” universally feared woman, she physically overpowered her adult-male victims. Nicknamed Bricktop because of her flaming-red hair, between 1856 and 1861 Jackson beat to death one man and stabbed to death three others because they called her names, objected to her foul language, or argued with her. Sentenced to ten years in prison for the 1861 stabbing death of a jailer-cum-live-in-lover who attempted to thrash her, 25-year-old Jackson disappeared nine months later when the newly appointed military governor of New Orleans emptied the prisons by issuing blanket pardons.
A member of the notorious Bloody Benders of Labette County, Kansas, beautiful 22-year-old Kate Bender claimed to be a psychic. In 1872 and1873, she enthralled male guests over dinner at the family’s inn while men posing as her father and brother sneaked up behind the victims and bashed in their skulls with a sledgehammer or slit their throats. Among the four Bender family members, only Kate and her mother were related, though Kate may have been married to the man posing as her brother. When a traveling doctor disappeared after visiting the Benders’ waystation in 1872, his brother began an investigation that turned up eleven bodies buried on the property. The Benders, who robbed their victims, disappeared without a trace. A persistent rumor claims vigilantes dispensed final justice somewhere on the Kansas prairie.
During the first year after her 1912 marriage to a millionaire farmer, 22-year-old Ellen Etheridge poisoned four of his eight children. She attempted to kill a fifth child by forcing him to drink lye, but the 13-year-old boy escaped and ran for help. A minister’s daughter, Etheridge confessed to the killings and the attempted murder, laying the blame on what she saw as her husband’s betrayal: He had married her not for love, but to provide an unpaid servant for his offspring, upon whom he lavished both his affection and his money. In 1913, a Bosque County, Texas, jury sentenced her to life in prison. She died in her sixties at the Goree State Farm for Women in Huntsville, Texas.
Linda Burfield Hazzard
|Linda Burfield Hazzard|
The first doctor in the U.S. to earn a medical degree as a “fasting specialist,” Linda Burfield Hazzard was so committed to proving her theories about weight loss and health that she starved at least fifteen patients to death. In 1912, she was convicted of manslaughter in the case of an Olalla, Washington, woman whose will she forged in order to steal the victim’s possessions. Hazzard served four years of a two-to-twenty-year prison sentence before receiving parole in late 1915. She died of self-starvation in 1938.
A serial “black widow,” Lyda Southard married seven men in five states over the course of eight years. Between 1915 and 1920, four of her husbands, a brother-in-law, and Southard’s three-year-old daughter—all recently covered by life insurance policies at Southard’s suggestion—died only months after the nuptials. On the surface, the deaths seemed to result from ptomaine poisoning, typhoid fever, influenza, or diphtheria, but upon digging deeper authorities discovered evidence the victims had been poisoned. Southard was convicted of second-degree murder in the poisoning death of her first husband, earning her a ten-years-to-life sentence in the Old Idaho State Penitentiary. She escaped with the warden’s assistance in 1931, only to be recaptured and returned to serve another eleven years before receiving parole. After changing her name, she married and divorced three more times before dying of a heart attack in 1958 in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Between 1918 and 1924, Dellas Sorenson killed eight family members to satisfy a twisted desire for revenge. Upon her arrest after an attempt to poison her second husband failed, she told authorities her niece and infant nephew, her first husband, her mother-in-law, two toddlers, and her own two daughters “bothered me, so I killed them.” She poisoned all of the children in the presence of their parents by feeding them cookies and candy laced with poison. A Dannebrog, Nebraska, jury declared the 28-year-old insane and committed her to the state mental asylum. She died there in 1941.
|Bertha Gifford and a six-year-old victim|
At the turn of the 20th Century, Bertha Gifford was known as an angel of mercy in Catawissa, Missouri. Not until 1928 did authorities discover the nurse's deadly ruse: The twenty to twenty-five sick friends and family members she took into her home and cared for between 1909 and 1928 all died of arsenic poisoning. Gifford was declared insane and committed to the Missouri State Hospital, where she died in 1951.
Kathleen, you have hit upon a subject that fascinates me. Probably because I spent twenty years working with the 'criminal', but even before that career, there was the fascination.I have always believed each sex capable of any crime and usually the female was the more scary of the two. Thank you for balancing the scale, so to say. DorisReplyDelete
Doris, you and I are kindred spirits -- no doubt about that. I'm totally fascinated by historical criminals, and female criminals just don't get that much ink.Delete
Yep -- the ladies definitely are the scarier of the two genders when it comes to crime. Somehow, they just seem sneakier, don't they?
Ah, how dark the fairer sex can be. Interesting post, Tex. I've always thought how much more evil a woman can be than man, and I think a lot of that is because no one expects it. You've rounded up some nightmare inducing ladies to be sure.ReplyDelete
Can you just imagine how twisted some of these women must have been? Delphine LaLaurie was the Devil personified. And the ladies who killed their own children -- how sick is that? **shudder**Delete
Glad I didn't run into any of them face to face!
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Fascinating glimpse at pure feminine evil, Kathleen, but I must say this offering of yours is best digested with some fava beans and a nice chianti.Delete
Tom! You're incorrigible. :-DDelete
This sort of thing is why I still watch Deadly Women on Investigative Discovery....ReplyDelete
Laura, I'll have to check out that show! I don't watch much TV (except I'm addicted to Hell on Wheels), but that series sounds like a winner. Thanks for the tip! :-)Delete
A fascinating read. Makes me glad that I'm no longer in the dating circuit.ReplyDelete
LOL, Gordo! You've got some tough ladies in your family. Thank goodness they're not murder-minded! :-DDelete
You have no idea...Delete
I'll have to tell you of the Legend of Los Alamos and Tina's "gunfight" on the plaza.
Yes, you will! I'll look forward to the tale. :-)Delete
Ain't that the truth! Don't turn your back on "the weaker sex." :-DReplyDelete
There is certainly a plethora of story 'fodder' in your post. My Muse perked up... ;-)
Oh no. I've done rousted Kaye's muse. Woe is the lot of us! ;-)Delete
Excellent post, but I mustn't let the children read it. They won't dare take their Flintstone vitamins tomorrow morning.ReplyDelete
LOL, Vonn! Kids can be so suspicious! :-DDelete
And they all look so innocent in their tintypes. Great post!ReplyDelete
Innocent? Why whatever do you mean, Mr. Prosch? **batting eyelashes** ;-)Delete