Monday, June 23, 2014

Kitty LeRoy: Beloved Tramp

By Kathleen Rice Adams

[Note: I apologize for failing to post the customary book review today. Please forgive me. So the blog doesn’t go naked, I’ve taken the liberty of re-posting a piece I published many moons ago at Sweethearts of the West. Someday I hope to novelize this woman’s life. She must have been a fascinating individual.  —KRA]

Deadwood, Dakota Territory, 1876
(courtesy National Archives and Records Administration)
Some historical episodes in the Old West read like adventures. Some read like tragedies. Some read like romances.

A few real-life characters—like Kitty LeRoy—managed to combine all three.

“…Kitty LeRoy was what a real man would call a starry beauty,” one of her contemporaries noted in a book with a ridiculously long title*. “Her brow was low and her brown hair thick and curling; she had five husbands, seven revolvers, a dozen bowie-knives and always went armed to the teeth, which latter were like pearls set in coral.”

Though no photos of her are known to exist, from all reports LeRoy was a stunning beauty with a sparkling personality that had men—including both notorious outlaws and iconic lawmen—throwing themselves at her feet. She was proficient in the arts of flirtation and seduction, and she didn’t hesitate to employ her feminine wiles to get what she wanted.

Often, what she wanted was the pot in a game of chance. One of the most accomplished poker players of her time, LeRoy spent much of her short life in gambling establishments. Eventually, she opened her own in one of the most notorious dens of iniquity the West has ever known: Deadwood, South Dakota. With LeRoy and the spectacular diamonds at her ears, neck, wrists, and fingers glittering brightly enough to blind her customers every night, it’s no wonder the Mint Gambling Saloon prospered.

And with her reputation as an expert markswoman, there was very little trouble…at least at the tables.

LeRoy was born in 1850, although no one is sure where. Some say Texas; others, Michigan. One thing is certain: By the age of ten, she was performing as a dancer on the stage. Working in dancehalls and saloons, she either picked up or augmented an innate ability to manipulate, along with gambling and weaponry skills that would serve her well for most of her life. At fifteen she married her first husband because, according to legend, he was the only man in Bay City, Michigan, who would let her shoot apples off his head while she galloped past on horseback.

Deadwood, c. 1878-80
A long attention span apparently was not among the skills LeRoy cultivated. Shortly after her marriage, she left her husband and infant son behind and headed for Texas. By the age of twenty, she had reached the pinnacle of popularity at Johnny Thompson’s Variety Theatre in Dallas, only to leave entertaining behind, too.

Instead, she tried her hand as a faro dealer. Ah, now there was a career that suited. Excitement, money, men…and extravagant costumes. Players never knew what character they would face until she appeared. A man? A sophisticate? A gypsy?

Texas soon bored LeRoy, too, but no matter. With a new saloonkeeper husband in tow, she headed for San Francisco—only to discover the streets were not paved with gold, as she had heard. While muddling through that dilemma, she somehow misplaced husband number two, which undoubtedly made it easier for her to engage in the sorts of promiscuous shenanigans for which she rapidly gained a reputation.

Although the reputation didn’t hurt her at the gaming tables, it did create a certain amount of unwanted attention. One too-ardent admirer persisted to such an extent that LeRoy challenged him to a duel. The man demurred, reportedly not wishing to take advantage of a woman. Never one to let a little thing like gender stand in her way, LeRoy changed into men’s clothes, returned, and challenged her suitor again. When he refused to draw a second time, she shot him anyway. Then, reportedly overcome with guilt, she called a minister and married husband number three as he was breathing his last.

Now a widow, LeRoy hopped a wagon train with Wild Bill Hickock and Calamity Jane and headed for the thriving boomtown of Deadwood. They arrived in July 1876, and LeRoy became an instant success by entertaining adoring prospectors nightly at the notorious Gem Theatre. Within a few months, she had earned enough money to open her own establishment: the Mint. There, she met and married husband number four, a German who had struck it rich in Black Hills gold. When the prospector’s fortune ran dry, so did LeRoy’s interest. She hit him over the head with a bottle and threw him out.

Meanwhile, thanks to LeRoy’s mystique—and allegedly, to no little fooling around with the customers—the Mint became a thriving operation. LeRoy reportedly “entertained” legendary characters as diverse as Hickock and Sam Bass. But it was 35-year-old card shark Samuel R. Curley who finally claimed her heart. Curley, besotted himself, became husband number five on June 11, 1877.

Shortly thereafter, Curley learned LeRoy hadn’t divorced her first husband. The bigamy realization, combined with rumors about LeRoy’s continued promiscuity, proved too much for the usually peaceful gambler. He stormed out of the Mint and didn’t stop until he reached Denver, Colorado.

Folks who knew LeRoy said she changed after Curley’s departure. Despite nights during which she raked in as much as $8,000 on a single turn of the cards, she grew cold and suspicious.

Gem Theatre, c. 1878
Her grief seemed to dissipate a bit when an old lover showed up in Deadwood. LeRoy rented rooms above the Lone Star Saloon, and the two moved in together.

By then, Curley was dealing faro in a posh Cheyenne, Wyoming, saloon. Acquaintances called him miserable. When word of LeRoy’s new relationship reached him, he flew into a jealous rage. Determined to confront his wife and her lover, he returned to Deadwood December 6, 1877. When the lover refused to see him, Curley told a Lone Star employee he’d kill them both.

LeRoy, reportedly still pining for her husband despite her new affair, agreed to meet Curley in her rooms at the Lone Star. Not long after she ascended the stairs, patrons below reported hearing a scream and two gunshots.

The following day, the Black Hills Daily Times reported the gruesome scene: LeRoy lay on her back, eyes closed. Except for the bullet hole in her chest, the 27-year-old looked as though she were asleep. Curley lay face down, his skull destroyed by a bullet from the Smith & Wesson still gripped in his right hand.

“Suspended upon the wall, a pretty picture of Kitty, taken when the bloom and vigor of youth gazed down upon the tenements of clay, as if to enable the visitor to contrast a happy past with a most wretched present,” the newspaper reported. “The pool of blood rested upon the floor; blood stains were upon the door and walls…”

An understated funeral took place in the room where Curley killed his wife and then took his own life. Their caskets were buried in the same grave in the city’s Ingleside Cemetery and later moved to an unmarked plot in the more famous Mount Moriah.

The happiness the couple could not find together in life, apparently they did in death. Within a month of the funeral, Lone Star patrons began to report seeing apparitions “recline in a loving embrace and finally melt away in the shadows of the night.” The sightings became so frequent, the editor of the Black Hills Daily Times investigated the matter himself. His report appeared in the paper February 28, 1878:

…[W]e simply give the following, as it appeared to us, and leave the reader to draw their own conclusions as to the phenomena witnessed by ourselves and many others. It is an oft repeated tale, but one which in this case is lent more than ordinary interest by the tragic events surrounding the actors.

To tell our tale briefly and simply, is to repeat a story old and well known—the reappearance, in spirit form, of departed humanity. In this case it is the shadow of a woman, comely, if not beautiful, and always following her footsteps, the tread and form of the man who was the cause of their double death. In the still watches of the night, the double phantoms are seen to tread the stairs where once they reclined in the flesh and linger o’er places where once they reclined in loving embrace, and finally to melt away in the shadows of the night as peacefully as their bodies’ souls seem to have done when the fatal bullets brought death and the grave to each.

Whatever may have been the vices and virtues of the ill-starred and ill-mated couple, we trust their spirits may find a happier camping ground than the hills and gulches of the Black Hills, and that tho’ infelicity reigned with them here, happiness may blossom in a fairer climate.


* Life and Adventures of SAM BASS, the Notorious Union Pacific and Texas Train Robber, Together with a Graphic Account of His Capture and Death, Sketch of the Members of his Band, with Thrilling Pen Pictures of their Many Bold and Desperate Deeds, and the Capture and Death of Collins, Berry, Barnes, and Arkansas Johnson (W.L. Hall & Company, 1878)

The Lady Was a Gambler: True Stories of Notorious Women of the Old West by Chris Enss (TwoDot, October 2007)

Women of the Western Frontier in Fact, Fiction and Film by Ronald W. Lackmann (McFarland & Company Inc., January 1997)


  1. Oh, Kathleen! What a fantastic story. I don't remember ever hearing about Kitty, but what a character she was! Thanks so much for this wonderful, entertaining and informative post. It makes you wonder where she came from in the beginning, what her life was like BEFORE she came to the notice of the public for her escapades.

    1. I wonder that, too. What was her family like when she was a child? I'm thinking they must have been entertainers for her to have been on the stage as young as she. I also wonder whatever happened to the husband and son she abandoned.

      Such a tragic story.

  2. Wow, what a story. Thanks for posting it again. Definitely worth a repeat.

    1. Thanks, Kristy! Of all the real-life historical characters I've researched, Kitty LeRoy's story haunts me. Such a troubled, determined woman. Maybe her life ended the only way it could. I can only imagine how a woman like Kitty would have dealt with the fading beauty that so often accompanies aging, especially in those who've lived hard, fast lives.

  3. Thank you for this story. I love the history, of course, and the language they used back then "Sigh". The newspaper account was so full of emotion I could see the lovers. Doris

    1. Doris, I figured you'd enjoy this post, what with your devotion to uncovering lesser-known historical personages. I enjoy reading old newspaper reports. Some of the writers and columnists during the Victorian era put the biggest offenders among purple-prose novelists to pure shame. :-D

  4. Kathleen,

    Sounds a bit more adventurous than the women I dated, but not by much.

    Goes to show, ALL women are dangerous.

    Hope you do indeed write a story about this colorful dame.


    1. Charlie, you believe in living on the edge, don't you? :-D

      Yes, all women are dangerous. ;-)

  5. Most interesting. It would certainly make an entertaining novelization.

  6. Fascinating post. Goes to show once again it took all kinds to settle the West.

    1. Ain't that the truth, Jim! Hm. Wonder what kind of sparks might have flown had Kitty met up with one of your Rangers... ;-)

  7. How did I miss out on the history of Ms.Kitty LeRoy in all my research of Deadwood? Wow, she was quite a character. She definitely deserves a book. Actually I can see two books. One of her life, and one of her afterlife. I do like a good ghost story. Thanks for sharing this one with us Kathleen.

    1. Ooh! Livia, that's a wonderful idea! The first would have to be a traditional western, because poor Kitty certainly didn't have a happy ending on this earth. The second, though...imagine what a supernatural historical western romance that would make! :-D

  8. What great info!! And I agree with Livia, it will take two books to do Kitty justice. What a wonderful blog topic, thanks for sharing!

    1. You're welcome, Meg! You and Livia are just troublemakers from the word go, aren't you? When we end up with two novels about Kitty LeRoy, guess where the fingers are gonna get pointed. :-D

  9. Great post. Reminds me of some of soiled doves I've known over the years--especially the armed and fractious part.

    1. Marc, I didn't think about that, but I guess Kitty must've been the foremother of some of the ladies who work in the world's oldest profession today. You are made of stronger stuff than I. Don't believe I'd want to cross swords with an angry, street-smart, armed woman. :-D